Il’ina Galina Viktorovna, Doctor of biological sciences, professor, sub-department of animal biology and veterinary science, Penza State Agrarian University (30 Botanicheskaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Il’in Dmitriy Yur'evich, Candidate of biological sciences, associate professor, sub-department of animal biology and veterinary science, Penza State Agrarian University (30 Botanicheskaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Il’in Vladimir Yurievich, Doctor of biological sciences, professor, sub-department of zoology and ecology, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. The present work is devoted to the study of competitive relationships between mycelial cultures of basidiomycetes and representatives of contaminant germs, which realize the ubiquitous strategy of existence in the vast majority. This problem is more relevant both from the theoretical positions, as it illustrates most important aspects of interspecific interactions at the microbial level, and from the practical ones – its solution will help to optimize the process of working with pure cultures of microorganisms. This approach allows to simulate the interactions that occur at cohabitation (competitive, allelopathyc and other topical communication), which are able to influence the distribution of the substrate, the course of development, the biosynthetic activity and other aspects of life of the mycelium of wood-destroying fungi in the nature.
Materials and methods. The research objects of laboratory experiments were strains of xylotrophic fungi Ganodermalucidum (Curtis) P. Karst., Grifola frondosa (Dicks.) Gray, Polyporus umbellatus (Pers.) Fr., Sparassis crispa, known for their curative properties and having the status of rare species in the microbiota of Penza region. Using the method of direct passages the basidiomycete cultures were artificial infected by contaminants (mesophilic cultures of fast-growing fungi Penicillium genera, Fusarium, Trichoderma). Experiments were performed using standard methods with mycelial cultures. Ergosterol in the fungal mycelium was determined by gas chromatography with derivatization to trimethylsilyl derivatives. A statistical analysis was performed using the “Statistica 6.0” data processing and analyzing program.
Results. The research related to the study of interspecies relationships of crop species of basidiomycetes with various microorganism competitors (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria). Artificial infectiing of the cultures with mesophilic fast-growing culture of mold fungi genera Penicillium, Fusarium, Trichoderma has revealed mixed levels of competitiveness in different species and at different stages of development. A common feature for all crop species studied was relatively low competitiveness at the stage of adaptation of the substrate and fairly significant resistance at the stage of logarithmic and stationary growth. It has been found that the resistance to microbial contamination and competitiveness of Basidiomycete species studied correlates with the content of ergosterol in the mycelium, which is manifested at interspecies and strain levels, as well as in the dynamics of crop development.
Conclusions. The authors have established different levels of competitiveness of mycelia of different species and strains of xylotrophic basidiomycetes to ubiquitous microorganisms, showing the dependence of the level of tolerance at the stage of development of the culture and its relation to the content of ergosterol in the mycelium.
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